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Meteorites - Flux with Time and Impact Effects

Product Code: SP140
Series: GSL Special Publications
Author/Editor: Edited by G. J. H. McCall, M.M. Grady and R. Hutchison and D. Rothery
Publication Date: 25 August 1998
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Description

The Earth is bombarded constantly by material from space. Evidence of this bombardment comes both from craters that may form prominent features in the landscape, and samples of the impactors curated as meteorites. Since the impact of extraterrestrial material on Earth has the potential to be of more than local significance, and can lead to effects traceable in both the geological and biological record, it is important to obtain an accurate picture of the extent of bombardment. Several techniques have been used to derive estimates for the flux of extraterrestrial material to the Earth, both now and throughout the geological record. The methods used to assess meteorite fluxes and impact effects are diverse and involve scientists from different communities (geologists, geochemists, biologists and astronomers).The volume commences with description of the meteorite flux with time, covering both small bodies (including strewn fields and the problem of 'pairing' of meteorites) and large bodies capable of producing craters and cryptoexplosion features. The discussion includes the different ways in which the flux has been determined (from observational astronomy, meteorite collection statistics and the oretical calculations). Following on this comes the documentation of impacts in the geological record and their effects on the environment, focusing specifically on the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T) boundary mass extinction event. Although the geophysical and geochemical evidence for a large impact at the end of the Cretaceous period is quite clear, the possible environmental consequences of an impact are still a matter of active debate, and the fossil record is by no means an unambiguous record of the mass extinction so frequently reported. Principle Authors: M. M. Grady, Natural History Museum, UK.E. M. Shoemaker, Lowell Observatory, USA.M. E. Bailey, Armagh Observatory, UK.W. M. Napier, Armagh Observatory, UK.D. W. Hughes, University of Sheffield, UK.P. A. Bland, Western Australian Museum, Australia.A. W. R. Bevan, Western Australian Museum of Natural Science, Australia.A. J. T. Jull, University of Arizona, USA.M. Zolensky, NASA Johnson Space Center, USA.R. A. F Grieve, Geological Survey of Canada, Canada.C. Koeberl, University of Vienna, Austria.A. R. Hildebrand, Geological Survey of Canada, Canada.P. K. H. Maguire, University of Leicester, UK.J. G. Spray, University of New Brunswick, Canada.I. Gilmour, The Open University, UK.N. MacLeod, The Natural History Museum, UK.A. C. Milner, The Natural History Museum, UK.A. Hallam, University of Birmingham, UK

Type: Book
Ten Digit ISBN: 1-86239-017-7
Thirteen Digit ISBN: 978-1-86239-017-1
Publisher: GSL
Binding: Hardback
Pages: 272
Weight: 0.87 kg

Contents

Preface • Meteorites: their flux with time and impact effects • Long-term variations in the impact cratering record on Earth • The flux of extraterrestrial material to the Earth: determination by astronomical and statistical techniques • Cometary capture and the nature of the impactors Napier, W. M.: Galactic periodicity and the geological record • The mass distribution of crater producing bodies • The flux of meteorites to the Earth: determinations by terrestrial techniques • Calculating flux from meteorite decay rates: A discussion of problems encountered in deciphering a 105 to 106 year integrated meteorite flux at Allan Hills and a new approach to pairing • Meteorite flux on the Nullarbor region, Australia • 14C terrestrial ages of meteorites from Victoria Land, Antarctica, and the infall rates of meteorites • The flux of meteorites to Antarctica • Craters and impactites • Extraterrestrial impacts on Earth: the evidence and the consequences • Identification of meteoritic components in impactites • Mapping Chicxulub crater structure with gravity and seismic reflection data • Preliminary results from a passive seismic array over the Chicxulub impact structure in Mexico • Localized shock- and friction-induced melting in response to hypervelocity impact • Geochemistry of carbon in terrestrial impact processes • Impacts and marine invertebrate extinction • Environmental consequences: the palaeontological evidence relating to mass-extinctions • Timing and causes of vertebrate extinction at the K-T boundary • Mass extinctions in Phanerozoic time

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