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Indus Valley Civilisations

Sukkur, N. Sindh
The Indus Valley Civilisation (mature period 2600–1900 BCE) flourished around the Indus River basin and encompassed most of what is now Pakistan (mainly the provinces of Sindh, Punjab and Balochistan), as well as Indian states Gujarat, Haryana, Punjab and Rajasthan. IVC remains have been found in Afghanistan, Turkmenistan and Iran. The mature phase of this civilisation is technically known as the Harappan Civilisation, after the first of its cities to be unearthed - Harappa in Pakistan.

The civilisation is sometimes referred to as the Indus Ghaggur-Hakra civilisation or the Indus-Sarasvati civilisation. The appellation Indus-Sarasvati is based on the possible identification of the Ghaggur-Hakra River with the Sarasvati River mentioned in the Rig Veda, but this usage is disputed on linguistic and geographical grounds.