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Report of a Geological Society Working Group, comprising:

  • Prof. Stephen Sparks FRS (Bristol University)
  • Prof. Stephen Self (Open University)
  • Dr David Pyle (Cambridge University)
  • Dr Clive Oppenheimer (Cambridge University)
  • Dr Hazel Rymer (Open University) and
  • Dr John Grattan (University of Wales, Aberystwyth)
Super Eruptions

    This document has been published on the website under the following headings:

    • Executive summary and recommendations
    • Introduction
    • Super-volcanoes and super-eruptions
    • Examples: Tambora, Vesuvius, and Toba
    • Frequency, locations and sizes of super-eruptions
    • Hazardous effects of super-eruptions
    • Comparisons; public perception and risk
    • Forecasting and potential effects of the next super-eruption
    • Mitigation
    • Further reading

    Download the report

    This publication is available to download by clicking on the link below:


    To refer to this publication please cite as follows: Sparks, S. & Self. S. et al., 2005: Super-eruptions: global effects and future threats: Report of a Geological Society of London Working Group.