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Typology of Sculpted Forms in Open Bedrock Channels, A

Product Code: USPE392
Series: GSA Special Papers
Author/Editor: by Keith Richardson and Paul Anthony Carling
Publication Date: 01 January 2005
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Special offer price £14.00 (usual price £40 / GSA&GSL £28)

GSA Special Paper 392.

Bedrock channels are important agents of erosion in mountainous areas, and understanding them is vital to the development of models of landscape evolution. Despite this, erosional sculpted forms in bedrock channels are a neglected area of research and are at present poorly described. This heavily illustrated book provides a comprehensive description and classification of bedforms in bedrock channels over a range of spatial scales and develops a consistent terminology, placing the study of sculpted forms in bedrock on a more rational footing alongside that of depositional bedforms. The authors then use the descriptions to define general principles governing the development of sculpted forms. They also show that erosional features in bedrock provide a wealth of information regarding flow structures, erosion processes and the origins of bedforms.


Type: Book
Ten Digit ISBN: 0-8137-2392-2
Thirteen Digit ISBN: 978-0-8137-2392-1
Publisher: GSA
Binding: Hardback
Pages: 112
Weight: 0.45 kg


• Introduction
• General Remarks on Bedforms in Open Bedrock Channels
Terminology and Definitions
• Introduction
• Erosion Mechanisms
• A Definition of Bedforms in Open Bedrock Channels
• Describing the Effect of Rock Structure on Channel Morphology
• Structural versus Hydrodynamic Control of Morphology
• Structurally Influenced Channel Morphologies
• Further Definitions
• Simple, Compound, and Coalesced Forms
• Isolate and Conjugate Forms
• Sharp or Cuspate Edges
• Flutes and Scallops
• Furrows, Grooves, Runnels, Troughs, Welts, and Channels
• Potholes
A Typology of Bedrock Bedforms
• Introduction
• 1. Concave Features
• 1.1 Potholes
• 1.2 Longitudinal Furrows
• 1.3 Nonlongitudinal Furrows
• 1.4 Furrow Complexes
• 1.5 Overhanging Concave Features
• 1.6 Shallow Concave Surfaces
• 2. Convex and Undulating Surfaces
• 2.1 Hummocky Forms
• 2.2 Other Convex and Undulating Surfaces
• 3. Composite Forms
• 3.1 Obstacle Marks
• 3.2 Hummocky Forms with Linear Depressions
• 3.3 Convex Surfaces with Steep Lee Faces
• 4. Solutional Forms
• 4.1 Solution Pits and Pans
• 4.2 Scallops
• 4.3 Other Solutional Forms
• 5. Tool Marks
• 5.1 Percussion Marks
• 5.2 Scratch Marks
• 6. Large-Scale Sculpted Features
• 6.1 Uniform Bed Gradient
• 6.2 Variable Bed Gradient
Further Observations and Discussion
• Principles Applying to the Morphology of Bedrock Bedforms
• 1. Continuity of Form
• 2. Convergence of Form
• 3. The Constructive Interference of the Flow Structures of Contiguous Bedforms
• 4. The Prevalence of Sharp Transverse Crests
• The Origin of Two Types of Sharp-Crested Transverse Features
• Sharp-Crested Hummocky Forms and Scallops: A Comparison
• The Origin of Scallops
• The Evolution of Directional Scallop Planforms
• The Origin of Sharp-Crested Hummocky Forms
• The Development of Sharp Edges in General
• The Phenomenon of Sharp Edges in Bedrock Bedforms
• A Criterion for the Development of Sharp Edges
• Types of Sharp Edges
• Mean Flow Pathlines Associated with Active Sharp Edges
• Further Comments on the Interpretation of Bedforms in Open Bedrock Channels
• Bedforms as Indicators of Flow Patterns
• Bedforms as Indicators of the Relative Roles of Bedload and Suspended Load in Erosion
• The Relative Importance of Erosion by Suspended Load and Bedload: A Hypothesis
• The Influence of Substrate on Bedform Development in Open Bedrock Channels
• Bedforms in Carbonate Rocks
• Bedforms in Silicate Rocks
• The Scale of Bedforms in Open Bedrock Channels
• Conclusions
• Acknowledgments
• References Cited 


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