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Interpretation of Three-Dimensional Seismic Data - Memoir 42, 7th Edition

Product Code: 1025
Series: AAPG Memoirs
Author/Editor: By Alistair R. Brown
Publication Date: 25 August 2011
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Description

Interpretation of Three-Dimensional Seismic Data is the definitive, and now classic, text on the subject. Conceived in 1979 and first published in 1986, the book helps geoscientists extract more information from their seismic data and improve the quality of their interpretations (James D. Robertson).

The prime focus of the book continues to be the synergy between 3-D seismic data and the workstation. The author passionately addresses the widespread problem of data under-utilization. Two new chapters and several new sections have been added in the Seventh Edition, but basic data understanding continues to be stressed.

Type: Book
Ten Digit ISBN:
Thirteen Digit ISBN: 9780891813743
Publisher: AAPG
Binding: Hardback
Pages: 646
Weight: 2.3 kg

Contents

Prefaces
Foreword The Business Impact of 3-D Seismic by W. K. Aylor, Jr.
Chapter 1 Introduction
The Nature of Seismic Reflection • Philosophy of Seismic Interpretation • History of 3-D Seismic Methods • Resolution • Examples of 3-D Data Improvement • Survey Design • Volume Concept • Slicing the Data Volume • Workstations • Dynamic Range and Data Loading • Acquisition Footprint • References
Chapter 2 Color, Character and Zero-Phaseness
Color Principles • Interpretive Value of Color • Assessment of Phase and Polarity • Psychological Impact of Color • References
Chapter 3 Structural Interpretation
Direct Contouring and the Importance of the Strike Perspective • Fault Recognition and Mapping • Interpretation in the Vicinity of Salt • Composite Displays • Interpretation Procedures • Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Displays • Subtle Structural Features • Visualization and Autotracking • References
Chapter 4 Stratigraphic Interpretation
Recognition of Characteristic Shape • Reconstituting a Depositional Surface • Methods of Making Horizon
Slices • Horizon Slice Examples • Unconformity Horizon Slices • Windowed Amplitude • References
Chapter 5 Reservoir Identification
Bright Spots as They Used to Be • The Character of Hydrocarbon Reflections • Examples of Bright Spots, Flat Spots, Dim Spots and Phase Changes • Polarity and Phase Problems, Multiple Contacts and Transmission Effects • Use of Frequency, Amplitude Variations with Offset and Shear Waves • Philosophy of Reflection Identification • Questions an Interpreter Should Ask in an Attempt to Validate the Presence of Hydrocarbons • The Occurrence of Hydrocarbon Indicators • References
Chapter 6 Tuning Phenomena in Reservoirs
Effect of Tuning on Stratigraphic Interpretation • Deterministic Tuning Curves • Statistical Tuning Curves • Understanding the Magnitude of Tuning Effects • Well Tying and Tuning Effects • References
Chapter 7 Reservoir Evaluation
Reservoir Properties Deducible from Seismic Data • Horizon Slices over Reservoir Interfaces • Composite Amplitude • Net Pay Thickness • Pore Volume • Well Calibration • Statistical Use of Tracked Horizon Data • Fault Slicing • References
Chapter 8 Horizon and Formation Attributes
Classification of Attributes • Time-derived Horizon Attributes • Coherence • Post-stack Amplitude Attributes • Hybrid Attributes • Frequency-derived Attributes • Volumetric Attributes and Curvature • Amplitude Variation with Offset • Use of Multiple Attributes
Spectral Decomposition
contributed by G. A. Partyka, M. D. Bush, P. G. A. Garossino, and P. R. Gutowski
Principles of Spectral Decomposition • Recommended Workflow • Significance of Spectral Balancing • Interpretation Recommendations • Resolution Benefits of Spectral Decomposition • Acknowledgments • References
Chapter 9 Inversion and Interpretation of Impedance Data
contributed by R. B. Latimer
Introduction • The Nature of Impedance Data • Quality Control of Seismic-derived Inverted Data • Log Analysis, Editing, and Rock Properties • Band Limitation and Impedances • Scale Differences • Methods of Inverting Seismic Data — General Considerations • Inversion Methods — Post-stack • Inversion Methods — Based on 3-D Stratigraphic Models • Inversion Methods — Pre-stack or Angle-stack • Which Inversion Method Do I Use? • Quality Control of Input Data • Interpretation of Impedance Data — General Considerations • Impedance Interpretation When the Relationship Is Unclear • Key Messages • Acknowledgments • References • Additional Reading
Chapter 10 Depth Conversion and Depth Imaging
Introduction
Depth Conversion
contributed by L. R. Denham and D. K. Agarwal
Sources and Computation of Velocity • General Considerations in Depth Conversion • Depth Conversion Using a Single Velocity Function • Depth Conversion Using Mapped Velocity Function • Depth Conversion Using Layers • Map Migration • Dealing with Conversion Errors • Discussion • References
Three-Dimensional Depth Image Interpretation
contributed by W. L. Abriel, J. P. Stefani, R. D. Shank, and D. C. Bartel
Concept of 3-D Depth Imaging • Why Time Imaging Is Not Depth Imaging • Required Elements of 3-D Depth
Imaging • Three-Dimensional Post-stack Depth vs. 3-D Post-stack Time Imaging • Noise Characteristics of Depth-Imaged Data • Pre-stack Depth Imaging • Example of Pre-stack vs. Post-stack 3-D Depth Imaging — Model Data
• Example of Pre-stack vs. Post-stack 3-D Depth Imaging — Live Data • Discussion • Acknowledgments
Chapter 11 Regional and Reconnaissance Use of 3-D Data
References
Chapter 12 Visualization and Visual Integration
contributed by D. M. Roberts
Introduction • Computer Hardware • The Power of Visualization • Data Inspection • Opacity • Data Interpretation • Coloring Surfaces by Amplitude • Stratigraphic Interpretation • Coherence Data • Surface Illumination • Advanced Attribute Visualization • Interpretation Quality Control • Visual Integration • Concluding Comments • Acknowledgments
Chapter 13 Four-Dimensional Reservoir Monitoring
Summary of Principles • Four-Dimensional Survey Results • References
Chapter 14 Case Histories of 3-D Seismic Surveys
“Field Appraisal with 3-D Seismic Surveys Offshore Trinidad,” by R. M. Galbraith and A. R. Brown
“Three-Dimensional Seismic Monitoring of an Enhanced Oil Recovery Process,” by R. J. Greaves and T. J. Fulp
“Impact of 3-D Seismic on Structural Interpretation at Prospect Cougar,” by C. J. McCarthy and P. W. Bilinski
“Three-Dimensional Seismic Interpretation of an Upper Permian Gas Field in Northwest Germany,” by H. E. C. Swanenberg and F. X. Fuehrer
“Seismic Data Interpretation for Reservoir Boundaries, Parameters, and Characterization,” by W. L. Abriel and R. M. Wright
“A 3-D Reflection Seismic Survey over the Dollarhide Field, Andrews County, Texas,” by M. T. Reblin, G. G. Chapel, S. L. Roche, and C. Keller
“Shallow 3-D Seismic and a 3-D Borehole Profile at Ekofisk Field,” by J. A. Dangerfield
“Extending Field Life in Offshore Gulf of Mexico Using a 3-D Seismic Survey,” by T. P. Bulling and R. S. Olsen
“Lisburne Porosity — Thickness Determination and Reservoir Management from 3-D Seismic Data,” by S. F. Stanulonis and H. V. Tran
“Value of Geophysics in the Production of Bay Marchand Field,” by W. L. Abriel and W. Haworth
Appendix A Considerations for Optimum 3-D Survey Design,
Acquisition and Processing
contributed by R. M. Lansley
General Issues • Marine Data Acquisition • Land Data Acquisition • Data Processing • References
Appendix B Interpretation Exercise
Background Information • Structural Component of Exercise • Stratigraphic Component of Exercise
• Procedure • Solution
Appendix C Instructions for Assessing Phase and Polarity
Appendix D Summary of Recommendations to Help Today’s Interpreter
Index

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