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Reconstruction of Pleistocene Ice-Dammed Lake Outburst Floods in the Altai Mountains, Siberia

Product Code: USPE386
Series: GSA Special Papers
Author/Editor: Jurgen Herget
Publication Date: 26 April 2005
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Special offer price £14 (usual price £41 / GSA&GSL £28.70)

GSA Special Paper 386.

In the Altai Mountains, located in southern Siberia, some of the largest floods in Earth’s history occurred in Pleistocene times. The floods were caused by ice-dammed lake outburst floods comparable with glacial Lake Missoula events. In this volume, the remnants of the repeated jökulhlaups and key features of the local Pleistocene environment are described in review. The volume also focuses on the paleohydraulic interpretation of the traces of the floods to reconstruct their magnitudes and characteristics. Herget applied several established methods in the study as well as developed and applied new approaches (e.g., hydraulic interpretation of run-up sediments, fluvial gravel dunes and local scour around obstacles).

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Type: Book
Ten Digit ISBN: 0-8137-2386-8
Thirteen Digit ISBN: 978-0-8137-2386-0
Publisher: GSA
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 118
Weight: 0.48 kg

Contents

Abstract • Chapter 1. Introduction • Problems • Aims • Methods • Structure of the Study • Chapter 2. Ice-Dammed Lakes and Jökulhlaups • 2.1 Classification of Ice-Dammed Lakes • 2.2 Mode of Drainage and Outburst Mechanisms • 2,3 Hydrographs of Jökulhlaups • 2.4 Occurrence and Distribution • Chapter 3. Altai Mountains • 3.1 Location and Geology • 3.2 Current Climate • 3.3 Quaternary of Altai Mountains • Chapter 4. Evidence of Jökulhlaups in the Altai Mountains • 4.1 Previous Studies and Reviews • 4.2 Flood-Related Features • 4.2.1 Lake Sediments and Shorelines • 4.2.2 Ice Dam and Failure Mechanism • 4.2.3 Giant Bars and Indication of Flow Conditions • 4.2.4 Secondary Lakes • 4.2.5 Gravel Dunes • 4.2.6 Erosional Forms • 4.2.7 Boulder Deposits • 4.3 Criticism on Occurrence of Jökulhlaups in the Altai Mountains • 4.4 Open Questions • Chapter 5. Reconstruction of the Floods • 5.1 Uniform Flow Calculation • 5.1.1 Introduction • 5.1.2 Hydraulic Background • 5.1.3 Data from the Altai Mountains • 5.1.4 Paleohydraulic Calculations • 5.1.5 Discussion • 5.2 Flow Calculation by HEC-RAS • 5.2.1 Introduction • 5.2.2 Hydraulics • 5.2.3 Paleostage Indicators • 5.2.4 Paleohydraulic Calculation • 5.2.4.1 Previous water level calculations of Pleistocene outburst floods • 5.2.4.2 Previous water profile calculations for the flood in the Altai Mountains • 5.2.4.3 Calculations for mixed flow regime • 5.2.5 Discussion • 5.3 Velocity Head Calculations using Run-Up Sediments • 5.3.1 Introduction • 5.3.2 Hydraulics • 5.3.3 Run-Up Sediments in Chuja and Katun Valley • 5.3.4 Paleohydraulic Calculation • 5.3.5 Discussion • 5.4 Correlation of Lake Volume and Peak Discharge • 5.4.1 Introduction • 5.4.2 Hydraulics • 5.4.3 Volume of Ice-Dammed Lake • 5.4.4 Paleohydraulic Calculation • 5.4.5 Discussion • 5.5 Boulder Transport • 5.5.1 Introduction • 5.5.2 Hydraulic Background • 5.5.3 Boulders near Inja Village • 5.5.4 Paleohydraulic Calculations • 5.5.5 Discussion • 5.6 Gravel dunes • 5.6.1 Introduction • 5.6.2 Hydraulic Background • 5.6.3 Dune Data for Paleohydraulic Reconstruction • 5.6.4 Paleohydraulic Calculations • 5.6.5 Discussion • 5.7 Obstacle marks • 5.7.1 Introduction • 5.7.2 Hydraulic Background • 5.7.2.1 Submerged obstacles • 5.7.2.2 Bridge piers • 5.7.3 Examples of Obstacle Marks in Chuja and Katun Valleys • 5.7.3 Paleohydraulic Calculations • 5.7.3 Discussion • Chapter 6. Review of Dynamics of the Altai Jökulhlaups • Acknowledgments • Appendices: Table A1. Location and Characteristics of Flood Features • Table A2. Bar Surfaces and Levels from Topographic Maps • References Cited 

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